Danube River, German Donau, Slovak Dunaj, Hungarian Duna, Serbo-Croatian and Bulgarian Dunav, Romanian Dunărea, Ukrainian Dunay, waterway, the second-longest in Europe after the Volga. It ascends in the Black Forest heaps of western Germany and streams for about 1,770 miles (2,850 km) to its mouth on the Black Sea. Along its course, it goes through 10 nations: Germany, Austria, Slovakia, Hungary, Croatia, Serbia, Bulgaria, Romania, Moldova, and Ukraine.
The Danube assumed an essential part in the settlement and political advancement of focal and southeastern Europe. Its banks, fixed with palaces and forts, framed the limit between extraordinary domains, and its waters filled in as an essential business interstate between countries. The waterway’s highness has for quite some time been praised in music. The popular three-step dance A der schönen, blauen Donau (1867; The Blue Danube), by Johann Strauss the Younger, turned into the image of majestic Vienna. In the 21st century, the waterway has proceeded with its job as a significant exchange vein. It has been bridled for hydroelectric power, especially along with the upper courses, and the urban communities along its banks-including the public capitals of Vienna (Austria), Budapest (Hungary), and Belgrade (Serbia)- have relied on it for their monetary development.
The Danube is of extraordinary financial significance to the 10 nations that line it-Ukraine, Moldova, Romania, Serbia, Croatia, Hungary, Bulgaria, Slovakia, Austria, and Germany-all which differently utilize the stream for cargo transport, the age of hydroelectricity, modern and private water supplies, water system, and fishing. The development of cargo is the main monetary utilization of the Danube. Among the significant ports are such urban areas as Izmayil, Ukraine; Galați and Brăila, Romania; Ruse, Bulgaria; Belgrade, Serbia; Budapest, Hungary; Bratislava, Slovakia; Vienna, Austria; and Regensburg, Germany.
Since World War II, the route has been improved by digging and by the development of a progression of trenches, and stream traffic has expanded significantly. The main channels all components in a continentwide plan of associating streams incorporate the Danube-Black Sea Canal, which runs from Cernovadă, Romania, to the Black Sea and gives a more straightforward and effectively traversable connection, and the Main-Danube Canal, finished in 1992 to interface the Danube to the Rhine and subsequently toward the North Sea.
The Danube has been tapped for power, mostly in its upper course.
The cycle, nonetheless, has spread downstream. One of the biggest hydroelectric activities the Ðerdap (Djerdap) High Dam and the Iron Gate power station-was fabricated mutually by Yugoslavia and Romania. Not exclusively does the undertaking produce hydroelectricity, yet it additionally makes safe what was once one of the most troublesome stretches on the waterway.
Modern utilization of Danube waters is made at Vienna, Budapest, Belgrade, and Ruse. The fundamental inundated regions are along the waterway in Slovakia, Hungary, Serbia, and Bulgaria. The waterway has almost become unsuitable for water systems just as for drinking water, notwithstanding, due to the colossal expansion in poisons; contamination has likewise lessened the once-rich fishing grounds, albeit a portion of the fish has moved to side lakes and bogs.
During the seventh century BCE, Greek mariners arrived at the lower Danube and cruised upstream, directing a lively exchange. They knew about the entire of the waterway’s lower course and named it the Ister. The Danube later filled in as the northern limit of the huge Roman Empire and was known as the Danuvius. A Roman armada watched its waters, and the fortresses along its shores were the focuses of settlements, among them Vindobona (later Vienna), Aquincum (later Budapest), Singidunum (later Belgrade), and Sexantaprista (later Ruse).
During the Middle Ages the old fortifications kept on assuming a significant part, and new palaces like Werfenstein, worked by Charlemagne in the ninth century, were raised. At the point when the Ottoman Empire spread from southeastern to focal Europe in the fifteenth century, the Turks depended upon the series of fortifications along the Danube for a guard. The Habsburg administration perceived the navigational capability of the Danube. Maria Theresa, sovereign of Hungary and Bohemia from 1740 to 1780, established a division to regulate waterway route, and in 1830 a riverboat made the first excursion from Vienna to Budapest, potentially for the end goal of exchanging. That outing denoted the finish of the waterway’s significance as a line of protection and the start of its utilization as a channel of exchange.
The controlled route on the Danube has been the subject of various peaceful accords. In 1616 an Austro-Turkish settlement was endorsed in Belgrade under which the Austrians were allowed the option to explore the center and lower Danube. In 1774, under the Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca, Russia was permitted to utilize the lower Danube. The Anglo-Austrian and the Russo-Austrian shows of 1838 and 1840, individually, advanced free route along the whole stream, a rule that was all the more unequivocally planned in the Treaty of Paris of 1856, which additionally set up the main Danubian Commission fully intent on regulating the waterway as a global stream. In 1921 and 1923, the last endorsement of the Danube River Statute was allowed by Austria, Germany, Yugoslavia, Bulgaria, Romania, Great Britain, Italy, Belgium, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and Greece. The worldwide Danube Commission was hence settled as a definitive organization with wide powers, including its own banner, the option to demand charges, and political insusceptibility for its individuals. It controlled the route from the town of Ulm to the Black Sea and kept navigational gear in decent shape.
During World War II, a free global route along the course of the stream was hindered by the threats, and an agreement concerning the resumption of route was not reached until the Danubian Convention of 1948. The new show accommodated the Danubian nations alone to take part in a reconstituted Danube Commission; of those nations, just West Germany didn’t join the show.